Sunday, May 24, 2020
In communication studies and information theory, noiseÃ refers to anything that interferes with the communication process between a speaker and an audience. Its also called interference. Noise can be external (a physical sound) or internal (a mental disturbance), and it can disrupt the communication process at any point. Another way to think of noise, notes Alan Jay Zaremba, author of Crisis Communication: Theory and Practice is as a factor that reduces the chances of successful communication but does not guarantee failure. Examples and Observations Craig E. Carroll, author of The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation likens noise to second-hand smoke having negative impacts on people without anyones consent. External noises are sights, sounds and other stimuli that draw peoples attention away from the message. For instance, a pop-up advertisement may draw your attention away from a web page or blog. Likewise, static or service interruptions can play havoc in cell phone conversations, the sound of a fire engine may distract you from a professors lecture or the smell of donuts may interfere with your train of thought during a conversation with a friend.(From Communicate! by Kathleen Verderber, Rudolph Verderber, and Deanna Sellnows) Kinds of Noise There are four kinds of noise. Physiological noise is a distraction caused by hunger, fatigue, headaches, medication and other factors that affect how we feel and think. Physical noise is interference in our environments, such as noises made by others, overly dim or bright lights, spam and pop-up ads, extreme temperatures, and crowded conditions. Psychological noise refers to qualities in us that affect how we communicate and interpret others. For instance, if you are preoccupied with a problem, you may be inattentive at a team meeting. Likewise, prejudice and defensive feelings can interfere with communication. Finally, semantic noise exists when words themselves are not mutually understood. Authors sometimes create semanticÃ noise by using jargonÃ or unnecessarily technical language.(From Interpersonal Communication: Everyday Encounters by Julia T. Wood) Noise in Rhetorical Communication Noise...refers to any element that interferesÃ with the generation of the intended meaning in the mind of the receiver...Noise may arise in the source, in the channel; or in the receiver. This factor ofÃ noiseÃ is not an essential part of the rhetoricalÃ communication process. TheÃ communication processÃ is always hampered to some degree if noise is present. Unfortunately, noise is almost always present. As a cause of failure in rhetorical communication, noise in the receiver is second only to noise in the source. Receivers of rhetorical communication are people, and no two people are exactly alike. Consequently, it is impossible for the source to determine the exact effect that a message will have upon a given receiver...The noise within the receiverÃ¢â¬âthe psychology of the receiverÃ¢â¬âwill determine to a great extent what the receiver will perceive.(From An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication: A Western Rhetorical Perspective by James C. McCroskey) Noise in Intercultural Communication For effective communication in an intercultural interaction, participants must rely on a common language, which usually means that one or more individuals will not be using their native tongue. Native fluency in a second language is difficult, especially when nonverbal behaviors are considered. People who use another language will often have an accent or might misuse a word or phrase, which can adversely affect the receivers understanding of the message. This type of distraction referred to as semantic noise, also encompasses jargon, slangÃ and even specialized professional terminology.(From Understanding Intercultural Communication: The Working Principles by Edwin R McDaniel, et al) Sources Verderber, Kathleen; Verderber, Rudolph; Sellnows, Deanna. Communicate! 14th Edtion. Wadsworth Cengage, 2014Wood, Julia T. Interpersonal Communication: Everyday Encounters, Sixth Edition. Wadsworth, 2010McCroskey, James C. An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication: A Western Rhetorical Perspective, Ninth Edition. Routledge, 2016McDaniel, Edwin R. et al. Understanding Intercultural Communication: The Working Principles. from Intercultural Communication: A Reader, 12th Edition. Wadsworth, 2009
Thursday, May 14, 2020
These types of services might be of special interest to the LEALES members considering, that Latino students because of their racial and socio-economic background tend to come largely from under-resourced, understaffed, underperforming, and inadequately funded schools. (Saenz Ponjuan, 2009) This often means that the teachers at the schools were underprepared and had a high turnover rate. This might be one of the reasons that 41% of Latino students require remediation courses and only 13% of Hispanics met the ACT readiness benchmark for all 4 subjects: English, reading, math, and science. (National Conference of State Legislators, n.d.) Therefore, the tutoring services might be very beneficial to some LEALES members. Additionally, as first-generation college students LEALES members are also more likely to lack study and time management skill (Engle, Bermeo, O Brien, 2006), something which LARC could also help address. LEALES student staff: As briefly mentioned previously student staff recruitment would take place during the spring quarter prior to the commencement of the school year. Students would be recruited on the basis of their demographic characteristics (e.g. Latino, male, and first-generation college student). There would also be a GPA component, mentors should have a 3.0 or better and be actively involved on campus; that could be in the form of research programs, clubs, or student organizations. Students meeting these criteria would receive an email invitingShow MoreRelatedThe Equal Protection Clause From The Fourteenth Amendment1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesreligion, national background). Specifically, in regards to Bakke v. Regents of University of California, the Supreme Court (Ã¢â¬Å"the CourtÃ¢â¬ ) concluded that, considering that the University of California, Davis received several Caucasian applicants for its special admission program in 1973 and 1974 and that none of the applicants received the admissio n to the program since the start, the program unfairly administered in favor of minority races and, therefore, violated the rights of the white applicants underRead MoreFormal Assessment Vs Informal Assessment1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFormal Assessment vs Informal Assessment Both formal and informal assessments are used to help students meet specific standards (Yell, 2006). They are also used to identify a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, which can improve the quality of teaching and learning (Yell, 2006). Formal assessment is the use of specific assessments to determine the level of learning the student is at (McLaughlin, 2006). Formal assessment strategies may include, essays, exams, projects, presentationsRead MoreThe Response Of Intervention ( Rti ) Process Is A Multi Layered Tier Educational Model1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmulti-layered tier educational model in which students receive high-quality instruction according to their specific academic and behavioral needs through teacher-directed instruction (Cakiroglu, 2015). In many schools, how students with learning disabilities are identified for RtI is quickly becoming a debatable topic of interest. The typical process used to determine RtI eligibility is extensive; teachers must exercise fidelity in keeping accurate student records, maintaining open communication withRead More Bilingual Education Essay1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe words of Thomas Jefferson ring with special meaning: in 1977, in a letter to his nephew, Jefferson said: Ã¢â¬Å"Bestow great attention on Spanish and endeavor to acquire an accurate knowledge of it. Our future connections with Spain and Spanish America will render that language a valuable acquisition. The ancient history of that part of America, too, is written in that languageÃ¢â¬ . (qt. in A Relook Ã¢â¬â¢66). Hispanic leaders should plan an initiative to help Hispanic youths do better in school. Its a coming-togetherRead MoreSchool Motivation And Learning Strategies Inventory783 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMotivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) is a self-report tool designed to determine student performance across a comprehensive set of behaviors representing learning strategies, academic motivation, and test-taking. This inventory is unique in that it is designed especially for use with school-aged youth. There are two forms: a Child Form for students aged 8-12 years, and a Teen Form for students aged 13-18 years. Both forms consist of over 100 items written at a third grade reading levelRead More No Child Left Behind is the Way to Get Ahead Essay985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Way to Get Ahead There are many students in America today that are struggling to make the grade. These students have not been given all opportunities and chances that they should have been given to be able to reach a higher level of education. Now children have a way to be able to get to the academic level that they rightfully deserve. President George W. Bush has created a plan for the future and a way to get all of our countries students to thrive in the education system and in lifeRead More Technology and Language in Education: The Effect of New Technology on Teaching Languages1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTechnology and Language in Education: The Effect of New Technology on Teaching Languages Annie Moore, a 15-year-old girl from Ireland arrived at Ellis Island in New York City on January 1, 1892. She was the first immigrant to come to that United States immigration station, but she was certainly not the last. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2000), 28.4 million of the 285.2 million US residents in 2000 were foreign-born. With such a large amount of our population being foreign-born, theRead MoreStrategic Diversity Plan For Public Schools2295 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesis the mission of Truman Public Schools to educate all students and to that end we have developed a plan to help reach students that we have not reached as well in the past. It is our intent to develop a school that helps to facilitate a more pluralistic society as well as the academic growth of our students and the growth of the community at large. This plan will be used to aid us in implementing researched based methods to improve student achievement throughout the district. It is also our intentRead M oreStudent Demographics Of Richmond County Schools1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages000. The school district includes 56 schools that serves 32, 426 students grades Pre-K through 12. There are 33 Elementary schools, 9 Middle schools, 8 Comprehensive high schools, 4 Magnet schools, 1 Special school and 1 Charter school. The student demographics of Richmond County Public Schools are: 70% African Americans, 22% White, 4% Hispanic, 3% Multicultural and 1% Asian. The district has a graduation rate of 58.3% for all students. Within the district there are 28 elementary schools, 8 middleRead MoreCollege Students Exposure to Mental Illness743 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIntroduction Many American students who graduate school seeking a higher education through college and or technical school is typically idolized amongst families and peers. Unfortunately, college has become extremely expensive for those living in the middle and lower class households. Many students often apply for student loans to compensate for what scholarships and federal financial aid to do not cover, such as the expenses of tuition, books, room and boarding fee. The stress of financial aid alone
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Gender Movements and General History Gender movements of 1960 encompassed more than the rights of women. The most common phrase that was used at that time was personal is political. This phrase was widely used by social movements of that time including the Women Liberation Movement. The input of women in social movements like Civil Rights Movement, the movement against the War in Vietnam, and myriad student movements was enormous despite the fact that they were not trusted with leadership positions. At formative stages, these movements called for more student rights and decision making power in college. They also agitated for end of Vietnam War, a war that was unpopular with many Americans. They also wanted the black population to be allowed to vote. These movements other than being thought of as fighting for personal issues also fought for political emancipation as they also clamored for social justice in the society (Mandle, n.d.). The 1960 America was characterized with anti-war and anti-government sentiments. Unfortunately, this is a period in history when America lost some of its greatest leaders to assassins bullets. Talk of J.F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy. Conspiracy theorists have found it convenient to link the assassinations of both Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King to suspicions about John F. Kennedys murder. Because the government of the day did not come clear about what could have been the motivation behind JFKs murder, thisShow MoreRelatedThe Fascination with Rock Music in The 1960s1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, popular music empowered youth and emphasized this portion of the population as a whole. As the cold war comes to an end in history, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s unnerve, especially among the newer generations, assembled ideas in order to create a certain understanding of their desires. However, unlike most of social uprisings in the past where demands w ere normally written through official documentation, in the sixties, rebellion is introduced in a lyrical manner through Rock Music. The fascinationRead MoreIslamic Culture : The American Psychological Association s Ethics Code900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIt is important for practitioners to understand, within the context of this growing population, how the intersections of history, culture, and religious beliefs and practices impact mental health and its treatment. This understanding will allow them to improve their competence in working with these individuals. History According to Haddad (1986) in her discussion of the history of Muslims in America, the earliest recording of the arrival of Muslims to America was in 1717 as slaves. Many of theseRead MoreJohn Howards Men Like That Book Review Essay1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Howard, John. Men Like That: A Southern Queer History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999. (hb). ISBN: 0-226-35471-7. John Howard in his 1999 book Men Like That: A Southern Queer History explores gay and transgendered male-male sexual desire and actions that goes beyond self- identification as being gay and includes those men that are Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ that and self -label as gay, as well as men who Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ that and engage in homosexual activity but do not consider themselves gay. Read MoreFeminism1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespolitical, and economic equality of the sexes. The movement organized around this belief. Feminism Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower women worldwide. Feminism can be defined as a recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to change it. Feminism The goals of feminism are: To demonstrate the importance of women To reveal that historically women have been subordinate to men To bring about gender equity. Feminism Simply put: Feminists fight forRead MoreAfrican Americans And The Civil Rights Movement1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor lives. Throughout American history, African Americans have slowly fought their way towards where they are today. Their fight has developed into the Civil Rights Movement in the 1900s. Many historians would agree that the start of the Civil Rights Movement happened early in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s as approximately two million African Americans migrated North and West, as well as one million moving from farms into urban landscapes in the South. In the 1950s and 1960s, the movement was fighting in various arenas:Read MoreThe Civil Rights Movement Of The United States1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe civil rights movement in the USA in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s.can be termed as a democratic movement. The basic reason behind this was the discrimination of the African-Americans that were enslaved and did not have citizen rights. The African-Americans protested greatly against their inj ustice. The birth of the civil rights movement was before the 1954 Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision on Brown versus Board of Education (Topeka) which stated that separate but equal schools was against the Constitution. FromRead MoreGender Roles And Specific Ways1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesso much meaning to them? Because of this much gendered approach to dressing, there has always been a strict limit to what gender can wear what. Gender roles and specific ways that each sex should act are culturally assigned to men and women and are reinforced by the use of clothing as they highly emphasize the qualities of biological sex. Fashion is something that promotes gender stereotypes of femininity and masculinity and this is represented in clothing, hairstyles, shoes, accessories and more.Read MoreWomen s Movement Of The United States1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement Have you ever asked yourself why people are different from each other? There is a lot of differences such as intelligence, opinions, appearances, personalities, and genders which, in my opinion, are the most important one. Genders usually represent the differences and also similarities between female and male, or women and men. In general, men usually have different responsibilities and duties as women. From history to modern time, the differences between women and men has changedRead MoreThe Mainstream Media And Gender Inequality Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaction, and the general knowledge about what is happening in the world. A topic that has received a quite a large amount of media coverage in history, throughout the years, and currently, is gender inequality. Specifically, the issue of women being stereotyped into traditional Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ roles and not being able to join the work force or, rather, being pressured not to attempt to join. This particular issue has defini tely lost much of its ammunition with the breaking of traditional gender roles in the pastRead MoreEssay on Womens Suffrage Movement in The Bahamas659 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Ilsha Mcphee History Coursework Question 1(A) What role did the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Suffrage Movement Play during the Ã¢â¬Å"Quiet RevolutionÃ¢â¬ in the Bahamas? Notable women such as Dame Doris Johnson, Mary Ingraham, Eugenia Lockhart, Mabel Walker and Georgianna Symonette has made countless triumphs toward the equal rights of all women in the Bahamas. In particular all of these women mentioned before were major persons in the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Suffrage Movement in the Bahamas. This movementÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose was
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
On my official visit to OSU, a gentleman who currently attends the university said something that really stuck with me during the course of the visit. He said, Ã¢â¬Å" Choosing OSU was one of the best decisions that I have ever made. All of the schools you just mentioned were on my list as well, and the best advice I can give to you is go with the school that feels right, the one that feels like you fit in and the one that makes you comfortable.Ã¢â¬ I have always been focused on achieving excellence in my academic career. Additional activities such as athletics and community service helped me learn leadership and how to take initiative. Throughout my visit I was able to see how I would be able to fit in with the other students, while continuing all of my achievements. While attending The Ohio State University, I will be able to attain my bachelors degree in Physical Education(k-12) and also my Master degree in Mathematics(7-12). We will write a custom essay sample on Why I Want to Attend Ohio State or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page During which I will have the opportunity to play club sports such as womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ice hockey as well. In conjunction with impeccably fitting in at OSU, I am very interested in the school because of its location. Being only an hour or so from home, I will be able to stay actively involved in Keaton, my seven year old brothers life. Keaton is tremendously important to my life, and I want to be there for him when he needs me. Also, I do not want to miss out on his childhood because I am too far away from him. I will be able to attend important gatherings to watch him grow, excel, and perform throughout my years at OSU. Just another reason why I am so interested in attending The Ohio State University.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
biligualism essays I was born and raised in Taiwan, therefore I think my first language should be considered as mandarin. My problem to define myself is that because even though I was living in a mandarin dominated community, I start studying in a total English environment starting at kindergarten. (I was in an international school that only teaches English and no other languages). The family that I grew up is a bit complicated to explain also. My father and mother speaks to me in mandarin, my grandparent speaks to me in Taiwanese while my grandparent on my mothers side that I dont meet often speaks to me in Japanese. This situation has started ever since I could remember. So, I could consider that I am expose to three language, mandarin, English, and Taiwanese all together, plus a little Japanese. (Though I could hardly speak them) but I think I might consider myself as a balanced bilingual of English and Mandarin, because I could speak and listen this two language fluently and express myself without problem at all. Or, maybe some semibilingual also, because I have to think of what Im trying to express before I could blurt out fluently. Japanese Well I could only express in simple words. Even so, there is a big problem that I find as I browse through the book, the mother tongue. Which one should be my first language? Because its just abit to complicated for me to decide. But since I speak with my parent mostly in mandarin, then it should be considered mandarin. Also, most of the time when I was talking to my friends when they understands both mandarin and English, we often end up communicating with mixed languages. Ex. A sentence that contains a few words of mandarin and the rest English; which sounds a little funny but were just too used to it. Personally I think Im pretty lucking to grow up in this kind of environment because I grow up learning English and mandarin so easily, there isnt really a ha...
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Great Gatsby Essay Example Great Gatsby Essay Great Gatsby Essay Essay Topic: Clueless Getting Trapped in Ones Dream In the words of the great rock band, The Beatles, it is said, For I dont care too much for money, for money cant buy me love. For his entire life, Jay Gatsby tried to rise up his social economic status to have the girl of his dreams marry him. The attempt to capture the American dream was the main focus of this novel. Gatsby devoted his whole life trying to achieve his so-called dream but failed to do so at the end. He misunderstood the real meaning of his own dream ssimilar to how many Americans misunderstood the true meaning of the American Dream. : The American Dream was the belief that everyone had the oopportunity to achieve their goals and become rich if they only worked hard enough. Copious amount of characters in Great Gatsby did not seem to grasp the concept that The American Dream was Just an illusion. They had not comprehended that everyone could not get what they wanted if they only worked hard. It took more than Just working hard enough; it all depended on ones destiny. The fact that they did not understand that concept and everyone was striving to be living in the dream led them to create fantasy lives. The author showed how one could become ruined by anothers focus on acquiring wealth, power and pleasure. The American Dream was sought to bring happiness to an Americans life no matter how rich or poor they were. The book was an example of how people worshiped materials. They cared more about how people viewed them rather than how they actually desired to be. Once again, the term American dream was an idea that suggested that anyone in America could succeed through hard work and had the potential to lead a happy, successful life. Moreover, hard work did not nly mean financially, but also morally and spiritually. In order for one to be happy, they needed to be able to obtain love above all. For, without love we are nothing; without God, we are nothing. Many people have expanded the definition to include things such as fulfillment and meaningful relationships. Americans, who do not have the life of their dream, the life that they always desired, tried to hide it by making up fantasies and pretending that everything was going great in their life. It is said that love can blind us and Gatsby demonstrated that point undoubtedly. For his whole life, he was focused on having money to be able to marry Daisy, for she was his motivation and his sustenance. Gatsby wanted his dream to become true and, in the long run, that led him to becoming very materialistic. He had the money and he thought that materialistic elements such as his house, his car, his parties and his so-called friends, would lure Daisy back to him. A great amount of the characters in Great Gatsby did not fully know the truth on the American Dream. They created illusions for themselves to pretend as if they had all the three things the American Dream promised; wealth, happiness and power. Gatsby, for example, thought that he had a great life with plenty of friends and no problems. In the end, we found out that he did not have the life he had desired. He was unhappy and he had no true friends. Gatsbys personal dream symbolized the American Dream. He had met Daisy many years before he became wealthy and they were not able to get married because of Gatsby low social economic status. His separation from Daisy encouraged nvm to work nara Tor nls wealtn He started Delng In tne Dootlegglng business when it had been illegal and he made a fortune out of it. Gatsby believed that he could rewrite the past by reinventing himself and changing his name after he had become rich. However, later in the book it is viewed that Gatsbys dream was hopeless for he could never win Daisys love back. Gatsby had believed with all his strength that he could have gotten Daisy back but when he took his dream too far, it only became a harmful and unattainable illusion. The numerous amounts of characters who were portrayed in the book all had the same mentality; it was only money that mattered. One character in the book portrays the exact expansion of the American Dream. Myrtle was living with her poor husband in the valley of ashes and was having an affair with Tom Buchanan, Daisys husband. When she got away with Tom to go to the city, she put on this new mask as if she were a totally different person. She bought a puppy, a magazine and perfume and went to her fancy apartment. Only rich women could afford these things and she was trying to show others that she was wealthy. Myrtle wanted to move up her social class but by being married to Wilson she was not able her to do so. The desire of achieving this fantasy led her to having an affair with Tom, she felt like he could give her all she wanted, owever love was not part of the deal. All this made her blind and clueless about how she was Just a toy on the side for Tom, for, she strived for this wish so much. Daisy, on the other hand, was also blinded by the truth. She could not decide who she wanted, Tom or Gatsby? She had a dream of being wealthy and being happy, like the American Dream had portrayed. She was aware of Toms mistress and she was always trying to hide the truth from ever one else when they started to get suspicious. Daisys fantasy made it possible for her to ignore the obvious signs that er mmarriage was falling apart. Surprisingly, even Tom makes up his little fantasy life with Myrtle. He could have had a wonderful mmarriage, with a beautiful wife and daughter but chose to decide that wasnt enough. Those two women in his life did not satisfy him and he wanted a third, Myrtle Wilson. Tom wanted to have power over everyone and since Myrtle was in a lower class than he was, she was perfect. He had always wanted to have more than every one else. Every character in the book wanted to have a happy and successful life and by wanting that they acted as if all their roblems were not a minor or some were nothing at all. The Great Gatsby portrays the broken American Dream. Though many peoples dream chattered into millions of pieces, the idea of the American Dream is still true. Everyone desires something in life and everyone somehow strives for it. Every single persons fantasies all contribute to that of the American Dream. People were striving so much to have a successful and happy life, ended up making up fantasies and lying to themselves. Many did not learn that dreaming too far could have led to the destruction of all ones hard work, which happened to everyone.
Friday, February 21, 2020
KATARIAN RESPECTING PATIENTS AUTONOMY - Coursework Example Consequently, a hypertension care plan must be drafted at first. 2. Next, Miss Downs must pay more frequent visits to the patient and consistently labor to build confidence and engage in dialog. Miss Downs must tell her about cleaning herself. She must show firmness over the issues regarding proper sanitation. 3. After the initial counseling, there is less likeliness of a discernable effect. The reason is that Miss Jenkins has already got very much habituated in her appallingly untidy way of life. So, it should be clearly understood and elucidated at this stage that Miss Downs cannot come to see Miss Jenkins again and again and do the things like clearing her bedpan and mending her footwear. 4. Next, Miss Downs must first collect necessary feedbacks and reports from the neighbors of her patient. Then, she should utilize community care manpower for removing Jenkins from her place. This is to be done by force if necessary in the presence of a qualified gerontologist. 5. Finally, Jenkins would be referred to the community fiduciary. Psychiatric intervention will be immensely necessary at this stage. Medics experienced in handling psychiatric cases can figure out if Miss Jenkins is suffering from any mental disorder that makes her reluctant to clean herself. The matter of cleaning oneself cannot be left to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sole personal discretion. If there is an outbreak of a communicable disease (for example, influenza), then an old, untidy person is highly vulnerable. Moreover, Miss Jenkins lives alone and she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to take care of herself if she develops problems like skin disease or severe dysentery due to untidy living. She may also fall prey to food poisoning if she does not wash her hands before taking her meals. Instead of high level philosophical thinking, some practical work has to be done in this scenario. Experts like Bondeson and